治療

1. 治療認知障礙症的概念

治療認知障礙症的方法主要分為藥物治療及非藥物治療。治療目的是取決於導致認知障礙症的原因和控制症狀,有些患者可能需要留院一段短時間。而認知障礙症的病情亦可以透過良好的生活習慣、社交活動、智力訓練及藥物等方法減緩衰退速度。
 

2. 治療目標

  • 減慢腦部衰退過程
  • 舒緩病徵
  • 盡量維持生活質素
  • 減輕照顧者的負擔

 

3. 治療開始時間與患者能力的關係

隨著病情發展,較早接受治療的患者在認知能力表現上比較遲接受治療的患者有較大的分別*。原因是已損失的腦部功能無法逆轉,因此治療必須要盡早開始,才能有效推遲病情惡化。
  另外,如需要藥物治療,早期高劑量治療比低劑量治療對病情有較佳的控制*。即使病情會隨時間而惡化,亦可讓患者在整個治療期間得到最大的治療效果。所以,醫生有機會按病情調較藥物劑量達至理想水平。
 

3. Relationship between treatment time and patients ability

As the disease progresses, patients with early treatment show notable differences compared with those with later treatments as damages to brain functions are irreversible. Therefore, patients should receive treatment as early as possible to promote effective delay of deterioration.
  Moreover, in case of medical treatment, early treatment with high dosage shows a better control of the disease than that of treatment with low dosage. Even when the disease progresses over time, patients can still experience optimal management throughout the treatment period. Doctors will adjust the dosage to achieve optimal effect depending on the conditions of patients.

資料來源:
律敦治及鄧肇堅醫院 - 認知障礙症照顧者手冊

香港老人科醫學會 - 認識認知障礙症
*Small G and Bullock R. Defining optimal treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. 2011; 7:177-84.
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更新日期: 28/11/2022